In practice, most of the nanomaterials are artificial. Magnetic nano-materials made up of small-sized nano-particles and single-domain structures, so they have very special magnetic properties and high coercivity properties. Recording materials that made up of magnetic nanomaterials are not only possess good sound, image quality, and high SNR(signal to noise ratio), but also have several times recording density of?-Fe2O3. Superparamagnetic ferromagnetic nanoparticles can also be made into magnetic fluids for electroacoustic devices, damping devices, rotary seals, lubrication and beneficiation fields.
Traditional ceramic materials is brittle, not easy to slide, and need high temperature to sinter. Nanocrystalline ceramic grain has small size and it’s very easy to move on other grains. Therefore, nano-ceramic materials have high strength, high toughness and good ductility, these characteristics make nano-ceramic materials can be processed by cold working at room temperature or sub-high temperature.
Nano-materials, which made of silicon, gallium arsenide and other semiconductor materials, possess many excellent properties. For example, the quantum tunneling effect in nano-semiconductors makes the electron transport of some semiconductor materials anomalous, decreases the conductivity and the thermal conductivity also decreases with the diminution of particle size. These features play an important role in large scale integrated circuit devices, optoelectronic devices and so on.
In blood, the size of erythrocytes ranges from 6,000 to 9,000 nm while nanoparticles are only a few nanometers in size and are actually much smaller than erythrocytes, so they can move freely in the bloodstream. Treatment can be conducted if therapeutic nanoparticles can be injected into human body. That would bring better effect than traditional therapeutic method. The use of nanotechnology can make the drug production process more sophisticated, and the manufacture of drugs with specific functions can be directly modified by molecular arrangements on the scale of atoms of nano-materials. Nanomaterials will make the drug more convenient to transmit in the human body. Intelligent drugs wrapped with several layers of nanoparticles are initiative to search and attack cancer cells or repair damaged tissue after enter into the body. New diagnostic instrument using nanotechnology can detect a wide range of diseases through the detection of proteins and DNA in small amounts of blood.
In 1991, Nippon Electric Company's experts prepared a material called "carbon nanotube", which is a tube made up of many hexagonal cyclic carbon atoms. Both ends of such monolayer and multilayer tubes are often sealed, and the diameter and tube length of such tubes consisting of carbon atoms are on the order of nanometers and are therefore referred to as carbon nanotubes. Its tensile strength is 100 times higher than steel, and the conductivity is even higher than copper. Carbon nanotubes heated to about 700? in the air so that carbon atoms on the top of the sealed pipe can be destroyed due to oxidation, so a orifice of carbon nanotube formed. Then the low melting point metal (such as lead) is evaporated by the electron beam, and to condense on the orifice of carbon nanotube. Due to the siphon effect, the metal enters the hollow core of the carbon nanotube. Due to the extremely small diameter of carbon nanotubes, the wire formed in the tube is also very thin, known as nanowires, the size effect of which is superconductivity. Therefore, carbon nanotubes and nanowires may become a new type of superconductor.
Household appliances made of nano-materials
Multifunctional plastic, made of nano-materials, with anti-bacterial, deodorant, anti-corrosion, anti-aging, anti-UV effect, which can be used as antibacterial and deodorant plastic in refrigerators and air conditioners.
Adds nano-SiO2, nano-ZnO and nano-SiO2 composite materials to synthetic resin, which can be used for manufacturing underwear and garments that are sterilized, mildew-proof, deodorant and anti-UV.
Coating treatment of nano-materials on the metal surface of mechanical parts can improve the wear resistance, hardness and service life of machinery and equipment.